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  1. Misinformation occurs when people hold incorrect factual beliefs and do so confidently. The problem, first conceptualized by Kuklinski and colleagues in 2000, plagues political systems and is exceedingly difficult to correct.

  2. Defining terms Joan Donovan, research director of the Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics, and Public Policy, explains: Misinformation: Spreading false information (rumors, insults, and pranks). Disinformation: The creation and distribution of intentionally false information, usually for political ends (scams, hoaxes, forgeries).

  3. May 7, 2021 · The second driver of the misinformation era is the emergence of high-profile political figures who encourage their followers to indulge their desire for identity-affirming misinformation....

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  5. May 13, 2021 · From misinformation around the COVID-19 pandemic to disinformation about the “Brexit” vote in Great Britain in 2016, fabricated or highly misleading news colloquially known as “fake news ...

    • When Are We Susceptible to Misinformation?
    • Covid-19 and The Infodemic
    • Efforts to Stop The Spread
    • What’s Next in Misinformation Research

    Starting in the 1970s, psychologists showed that even after misinformation is corrected, false beliefs can still persist (Anderson, C. A., et al., Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 39, No. 6, 1980). “When we hear new information, we often think about what it may mean,” says Norbert Schwarz, PhD, a professor of psychology and market...

    Regardless of why it’s shared, misinformation surrounding COVID-19 has been so rampant that the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a parallel “infodemic”to describe the scale of fake news and its potential impact on efforts to limit the virus’s spread. “There’s often a lot of uncertainty in crisis situations, so people come together and start...

    Psychological research backs several methods of countering misinformation. One is to debunk incorrect information after it has spread. Much more effective, though, is inoculating people against fake news before they’re exposed—a strategy known as “prebunking.” “Like a vaccine, we expose people to a small dose of misinformation and explain to them h...

    One key to stanching the deluge of misinformation is to halt its spread on social media platforms, but that requires industry buy-in, which has been slow. During the 2020 presidential election, Twitter flagged tweets that contained misleading information about election results—a form of prebunking—and in December, Facebook announced that it would b...

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